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Over 90,000 words on

A Theoretical and Practical Perspective

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Biology and Health Science,

With Related Technical Writing

A Theoretical And Practical Perspective

By David Alderoty

July, 2008

Phone (212) 581-3740

E-mail: RunDavid@Verizon.net

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This electronic book functions just like a conventional website, except most of it is contained in one very long webpage.  You can move to different sections of this long webpage, by scrolling up or down, with the arrow keys on the keyboard, or with the mouse.  The blue words, below, is a hyperlink table of contents.  Left click on any word and you will be taken to the corresponding section of the book.  This e-book also contains a large number of links that will take you automatically to various websites when you click on them.  To return to this e-book, after viewing one of these websites, click on the left arrow  on the upper, left portion of your screen, one or more times, until you are back to this e-book.  Clicking on the left arrow can also return you to the table of contents, from various sections of the book.  

PART ONE: THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THIS BOOK

 

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PART ONE: THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THIS BOOK  6

2 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 60

About This Multimedia Electronic Book  60

THIS ELECTRONIC BOOK FUNCTIONS EXACTLY LIKE A CONVENTIONAL WEBSITE. 60

PART TWO: THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS DEAL WITH WRITING, FOCUSED ON THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND RELATED RESEARCH. 62

Chapter 1, Writing And The Biological Sciences-Your Writing Objectives. 63

YOUR WRITING GOALS AND YOUR READERS  63

Introductory concepts. 63

Your Document, And Your Communication Objectives. 64

Communication And Psychological Factors  66

Your Document, And Your Personal Objectives  67

CREATING TEXT THAT IS APPROPRIATE FOR YOUR READERS AND YOUR OBJECTIVES  69

A Simple Technique: Think Of Your Objectives, And Put Yourself In The Readers Place, And Write Accordingly. 70

Try To Test Your Work By Presenting Your Material To A Sample Of Your Readers, To See If It Meets Your Communication And Personal Objectives  73

3 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 75

Chapter 2, Writing And The Biological Sciences-Style Requirements, And Related Concepts. 75

THE FUNCTIONALITY, AND DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF STYLE REQUIREMENTS. 76

Consider The Style Requirements, As Well As Good Grammar, Sentence And Paragraph Structure. 77

Style Requirements Are Sometimes Dysfunctional 79

The Passive Voice, And Style Requirements  81

Summing Up: The Passive Voice In Lab Reports And Scientific Journals. 84

Websites On Scientific Documents, Passive Voice, And Related Concepts. 86

4 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 88

Chapter 3, Writing And The Biological Sciences: Articles For Laypeople. 88

STRUCTURE OF MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES IN BIOLOGY AND HEALTH SCIENCE  88

Introduction. 88

A Description Of Typical Style Requirements For Lay Newspapers And Magazines. 89

Websites On Writing Biology And Health Science Articles For The General Public. 91

5 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 92

Chapter 4, Writing And The Biological Sciences: Formal Scientific Documents  92

THE STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTS, SUCH AS JOURNAL ARTICLES, AND SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 93

Introductory Ideas. 93

Structure And Style Requirements For Journal Articles And Similar Scientific Documents  94

The Passive and Active Voice In Scientific Documents. 96

A Descriptive Title That Describes The Content Of The Document 98

The Name Of The Writer And Credentials And Affiliations. 102

An Abstract For Scientific Documents. 103

Scientific Documents For In-House Assessment Of Research, May Contain An Executive Summary Instead Of An Abstract. 106

The Introduction Of A Journal Article Or Other Scientific Document 108

Methods And Materials Section. 109

The Results Section. 110

Should You Report Extraneous Data (Or Noise) Obtained From Your Research, In The Results Section?. 111

An Explanatory Note On Extraneous Data: What Is Noise?. 113

Reducing The Level Of Noise (Extraneous Data) In Your Research, Will Make It Easier To Write The Results Section. 114

The Discussion Section. 116

Concluding Information Of A Scientific Document 117

The Acknowledgments Section Of A Journal Article Or Other Scientific Document 119

The Literature Cited Section Of A Scientific Document 120

Works Cited In Electronic Documents. 122

Appendix Of A Scientific Documents (Appendices Is Plural) (Singular Is Appendix). 125

Websites On Writing Scientific Documents  131

6 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 134

Chapter 5, Writing And The Biological Sciences: What Do You Do First, When You Are Writing A Scientific Document?  134

AN OPTIMIZED SEQUENCE FOR CREATING A JOURNAL ARTICLE OR SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENT  135

Introduction. 135

Step One For Creating A Scientific Document: creating Good Research Plans. 137

How To Create, Or Improve, Your Research Plans  138

Step Two For Creating A Scientific Document, Obtaining Funding For Your Research. 141

Grant Proposals. 145

Websites On How To Write Research Grant Proposals, And Obtain Funding For Research  147

7 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 149

The Third Step For Creating A Scientific Document, Carrying Out The Research And Taking Notes  149

The Fourth Step For Creating A Scientific Document, Involves Evaluating Your Data, And Converting It Into Relevant Information  150

Research Data Can Be Thought Of As The Pieces Of A Jigsaw Puzzle, And The Information, Sentences, Paragraphs, And Completed Research Document Is The Assembled Puzzle. 153

An Important Note: Research Data Can Sometimes Be Organized A Number Of Ways, Resulting In Additional interpretations or  Information  155

The Fifth Step For Creating A Scientific Document, Is To Start Writing Any Section You Prefer, Except For The Abstract And Title. 156

How To Deal With Writer's Block And Sticking Points When Writing A Scientific Document. 161

The Six Step In Creating A Scientific Document, Is To Check It Over For Any Last-Minute Corrections, And Submit It To Your Publisher, Employer Or Instructor 165

Self Publication On The Internet Is An Alternative Way Of Getting Scientific Documents Published  170

8 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 173

Chapter 6, Writing And The Biological Sciences: Increase The Quality Of Your Writing, With Microsoft Word's Spelling, Grammar And Style Checker 173

BASIC IDEAS ABOUT MICROSOFT WORD’S CHECKERS. 174

Introduction. 174

HOW TO USE MICROSOFT WORD’S SPELL CHECKER. 175

The Basic Features Of The Spellchecker 175

MICROSOFT WORD’S GRAMMAR AND STYLE CHECKER. 180

How To Use Microsoft Word's Grammar And Style Checker 180

Adjusting The Microsoft Word Grammar And Style Checker 184

The Passive Voice, And The Microsoft Word Style Checker 190

9 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 195

Chapter 7, Writing And The Biological Sciences: The Electronic Format 195

A DESCRIPTION OF THE ELECTRONIC FORMAT, AND ITS ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL HARDCOPY. 196

Introduction To The Electronic Format 196

Scientific Journal Articles And The Electronic Format 197

The Advantage Of The Electronic Format For Journal Articles, Becomes Apparent With Computerized Searching Devices. 198

A Disadvantage To The Electronic Format, When Doing Research On The Internet Is Most Journals Want Money Just To Read An Article. 199

Variations Of The Electronic Format 201

Multimedia Documents Can Be Designed So They Can Be Printed And Understood In A Hardcopy Format 207

Summing Up The Utility Of The Multimedia Format For Scientific Documents. 208

WRITING FOR ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS  211

General Structure And Style Of Electronic Documents. 211

THE WRITING STYLE USED FOR THIS BOOK  212

A Very Useful Style For Complex Subjects, Such As Biological Science. 212

The Text Was Created For Reading And A Recorded Narration. 215

An Important Feature Of The Style Used In This Book Is A Large Number Of Hyperlinks To Websites With Articles By Different Authors. 216

10 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 222

Chapter 8 The Internet And Special Search Engines, And Directories For Biology And Health Science. 222

SEARCH ENGINES AND RELATED CONCEPTS  222

Introduction. 223

What Is an Internet Search Engine. 224

Popular Search Engines. 226

A List Of Popular Search Engines. 227

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An Alternative To Search Engines, Internet Directories. 228

A List Of General Directories, For Finding Information On The Internet 230

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Academic Search Engines. 232

Academic Search Engines And related Information  233

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Specialized Search Engines, And Directories  235

A List Of Specialized Search Engines And Directories, and related information For Biology, And Health Science. 238

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What Is A Web Browser?. 248

Websites For Information And Downloads Of Browsers. 249

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PART THREE THE TWO CHAPTERS THAT FOLLOW DEAL WITH BASIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, WITH A FOCUS ON LIVING MATTER. 250

Chapter 9 Atoms, Molecules, Chemistry, Physics, Cells: The Building Blocks of Life  252

BASIC CHEMISTRY AND LIFE. 252

Introduction: The building blocks. 252

The Building Blocks Of Atoms. 253

*A Note On Naturally Occurring Elements  254

A Note On Elements Created By Scientists In Nuclear Reactions. 254

16 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 256

A Definition Of Elements. 256

The Periodic Table. 256

Isotopes. 257

Are Isotopes Relevant for Biological Science?  260

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Atoms, Molecules, and Chemicals. 263

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LIVING MATTER. 263

What Are The Most Abundant Chemicals In Living Matter? C, H, O, N, Ca, Ph. 263

Carbon’s Unique Properties. 264

Life Forms Based On Elements Other Than Carbon, This Is Quite Doubtful ????????. 265

A Brief Note On Organic Chemistry. 267

Websites On Organic Chemistry. 268

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A Brief Look at Biochemistry. 269

Websites On Biochemistry. 270

19 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 272

From The Smallest To The Largest, Concluding Concepts. 272

Chapter 10 A Brief Look At Life From The Perspective Of Physics, And Related Concepts. 273

Introduction. 273

The Laws Of Physics That Apply To Machines And Other Inanimate Objects, Also Apply To Living Things. 274

20 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 278

PHYSICS, ENERGY, WORK AND LIVING THINGS  278

Energy And Life. 279

The Same Laws Of Physics Apply, When People, Animals, Or Machines Lift Objects, Produce Work, And Consume Energy. 279

The Above Suggests the Question: What is the Ultimate Source of Energy for Living Things. 280

Websites On Photosynthesis, And Related Concepts. 281

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Animals Generally Get Their Energy By Eating Plants Or Other Animals. 283

Are There Any Living Things On Earth That Do Not Ultimately Depend On The Sun For Energy  285

Another Explanation: Is There Really A Significant Non-Solar Food Chain On Our Planet?. 288

Summing Up Important Ideas. 294

22 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 295

PART FOUR: THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS DEAL WITH MICROBIOLOGY AND RELATED CONCEPTS. 295

Chapter 11 Microbiology: Microscopes  296

LIGHT MICROSCOPES. 296

Introduction: The Microscope, And Related Developments In Biology. 296

How Is Magnification Measured, And What Units Of Length Are Used For Microscopic Work  298

The Simplest Microscopes. 299

A Note On The History Of The Microscope  301

Websites On The History Of The Microscope  303

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The Modern Light Microscope. 304

Websites On The Light Microscope, And Related Concepts. 307

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Some Variations Of The Light Microscope: Phase Contrast, Polarizing Light, Dark Field, Reflected Light, 308

Oil Immersion Objectives For High Magnification  310

PROBLEMS AND TECHNIQUES WITH THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE. 313

A Major Problem With The Light Microscope Is Minimal Depth Of Field, Especially At High Magnifications. 313

The Movement Of Live Microorganisms Can Make Observations Or Photography Difficult, But With The Right Techniques This Problem Can Be Circumvented. 315

The Problem Of Contrast And Detail With Light Microscopes. 318

The Main Advantage Of The Light Microscope (Observation Of Living Microorganisms) Is Defeated When Conventional Dyes Are Used  320

Methods Of Increasing Contrast And Detail Of Microorganisms, Without Killing Them.. 321

Digital Photography, And Photo Editing Software, Is One Of The Best Ways Of Increasing Contrast and Overall Quality Of Images From The Light Microscope. 328

MY PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK AND EXPERIMENTS WITH THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE. 331

Digital Photomicrographs And Photo Editing Applications To Increase Detail And Contrast Of Microorganisms. 331

25 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 408

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Chapter 12 Microbiology: Cells And Related Concepts. 426

THE CELL, AND RELATED CONCEPTS. 427

Cells Are The Smallest Living Entities, But They Are Very Complex. 427

A FEW MAJOR SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF CELLS. 429

In What Way Are Cells Similar To Each Other 429

What Are Some Of The Ways That Cells Differ From Each Other?. 430

CELLS CAN BE SEPARATED INTO CATEGORIES IN A NUMBER OF WAYS. 432

Single Celled Organisms, And Cells From Multicellular Organisms. 432

Cells With And Without Locomotion. 434

Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes. 435

What Are Eukaryotes?. 436

How Do Eukaryotes Reproduce?. 438

What Are Prokaryotes. 440

How Do Prokaryotes Reproduce?. 441

Another Category Of Cells Is Archaea, Which Was At One Time Called Archaebacteria. 444

27 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 446

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT STRAINS OF PATHOLOGICAL BACTERIA CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE WAY PROKARYOTES REPRODUCE  446

A Colony Of Prokaryotes, Including Infectious Bacteria, Can Double Its Population Each Generation, Under Ideal Conditions. 448

From One Bacteria To Over 17.5 Trillion, In 45 Generations. 450

Efforts to Deal with Resistant Strains of Infectious Bacteria. 451

AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE, OR SPECULATION, OF PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES. 454

28 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 455

Chapter 13 Microbiology: The Cellular Structure Of Living Things. 455

CELLS FROM THE SIMPLEST PERSPECTIVE  456

Introductory Concepts, Three Components Of Cells  456

The Cell Membrane. 457

Transport Of Chemicals Through The Cell Membrane. 458

Inactive Transport Through The Cell Membrane  459

An Active Form Of Transport Through The Cell Membrane Requires Energy. 461

What Is Protoplasm?. 462

What Is Cytoplasm.. 463

The Nucleus. 463

Ribosomes. 464

Mitochondria. 465

Websites With Photographs And Diagrams Of The Mitochondria. 466

29 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 467

The Mitochondria And Energy Production  467

Chloroplasts Are Present In Green Plants  469

Some Cells Have Cell Walls Such As Green Plants And Certain Fungi 470

What Are Lysosomes. 470

What Are Cell Vacuoles. 471

Websites On Cells, Organelles And Related Concepts. 471

30 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 478

LOCOMOTION OF CELLS. 478

Diverse Methods Of Locomotion. 478

Movements Of Cells, As Part Of A Multicellular Organism.. 479

Movement With Water And Air Currents  480

Movement Of Cells With Cilia (Locomotion Of  With Cilia Plural For Cilia. 481

What Is Flagella (Plural Is Flagellum). 482

What Is A Pseudopod (The Plural Is Pseudopods Or Pseudopodia). 483

PART FIVE: THE TWO CHAPTERS THAT FOLLOW DEAL WITH EVOLUTION. 485

Chapter-14 A Summary Of Evolution Of Life On Planet Earth. 486

HOW LIFE DEVELOPED?  IN A SERIES OF EVOLUTIONARY STAGES. 486

Introduction. 487

The Formation Of The Fundamental Elements Needed For Life. 488

31 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 491

Chemical Formation Of Basic Inorganic Compounds  491

32 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 493

The Evolvement Of The Organic Chemicals Needed For Life. 493

33 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 495

The Evolvement Of Bacteria (Prokaryotes)  495

34 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 497

The Evolvement Of Cyanobacteria, a Prokaryote (Blue-Green Algae). 497

35 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 500

The Evolvement Of Archaea: A Simple Species Of Archaea May Have Developed Before Bacteria  500

36 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 503

The Evolvement Of Eukaryotes. 503

37 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 505

Evolvement Of Advanced Forms Of Algae, With Eukaryotic Cells. 505

38 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 508

The Evolvement Of Green Plants (That Live On Land). 508

39 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 510

The Evolvement Of Multicellular Fungi (Eukaryotic Cells). 510

40 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 511

The Evolvement Of Protozoa (Eukaryotes Single Celled Organisms). 511

41 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 513

The Evolvement Of Multicellular Organisms With Locomotion. 513

42 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 515

The Evolvement Of Insects, Spiders, And Centipedes. 515

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The Evolvement Of Amphibians. 517

44 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 519

The Evolvement Of Reptiles. 519

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The Evolvement Of Birds. 521

46 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 523

The Evolvement of Mammals. 523

47 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 526

Another Possibility For The Evolvement Of Birds  526

The Evolvement Of Higher Mammals, Primates  526

Internet Videos On Evolution. 530

Websites On Evolution. 532

48 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 533

Chapter-15 Notes On Evolution. 533

IN THE MOST GENERAL SENSE, WHAT IS EVOLUTION? A WIDER MEANING OF THE CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION. 533

Evolution Is A Process, With Selective Stages, That Results In The Evolvement Of a system of entities, Over A Period Of Time, Such As Life On Earth, Languages, Culture, Technology, Etc. 534

Most Languages, Including English, Developed In An Evolutionary Process. 536

The Evolvement Of Technology. 538

Cultural Evolution And Societies. 541

General Behavior Patterns Of The Human Species, Are The Result Of Both Biological, Social And Cultural Evolution. 544

Are The Various Behavior Patterns Commonly Seen In Human Beings The Result Of Biological Evolution Or Social And Cultural Evolution. 546

Many Aspects Of Our Lives Develop In An Evolutionary Process. 548

A NOTE ON BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, AND THE ROLES OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION. 551

Some People Act Very Adversely To The Theory Of Evolution Of Life As A Result Of Their Religious Beliefs. 552

A NOTE ON MODERN EVOLUTIONARY THEORY  559

Is Modern Evolutionary Theory The Same As Charles Darwin's Theory Of Evolution?  559

EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AND RANDOM CHANCE. 562

Introduction. 562

The Relativity Of Randomness And Chance Occurrences. 563

The Development Of Life: Evolutionary Processes That Involve Unlikely Random Chance Occurrences, That Results In One Or More Self Replicating Entities. 566

A Note On: The Stages Involved With The Evolutionary Development Of Life. 568

NOTES ON EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS, IN RELATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE ON EARTH. 571

Introduction. 572

Note On The Terminology: Exothermic Reactions, And Endothermic Reactions. 572

A Note* On Exothermic Reactions And The Evolvement Of The Basic Inorganic Chemicals Needed For Life. 574

A Note On: Different Types Of Endothermic Reactions Require Different Types Of Energy  576

THE FIRST STAGE IN THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF LIFE, CHEMICAL EVOLUTION, INVOLVING EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS. 579

The First Step Of Chemical Evolution: The Creation Of Basic Chemical Compounds From Natural Elements Involving Exothermic Reactions  580

The Second Step Of Chemical Evolution: The Creation Of Amino Acids In Endothermic Reactions, which Led To The Development Of Polypeptides And Proteins. 582

There Are Many Other Ways That The Organic Chemicals Needed For Life Could Have Been Created. 583

The Accumulation Of Organic Chemicals  584

THE SECOND STAGE OF EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE: THE EVOLVEMENT OF PROKARYOTES. 585

A Note On: The Evolvement Of The First Living Entities, From Chemicals. 586

The Development Of The First Living Entity Might Have Been The Result Of Random Chance  587

The Evolvement Of Nucleic Acid. 589

The First Bacteria That Evolved And Their Food  594

Did The Evolvement Of One Living Cell Produce All Living Things On Earth?. 596

THE THIRD STAGE IN THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE EVOLVEMENT OF EUKARYOTE. 599

Eukaryotes And One Possibility Of How They May Have Evolved. 600

A NOTE ON VIRUSES AND EVOLUTION   603

What Are Viruses, Are They Living Or Nonliving Entities. 603

The Evolvement Of Viruses. 604

How Do Viruses Reproduce?. 604

New Strains Of Viruses And Their Evolvement 605

Viruses Might Have Had A Role In Evolution Of Living Things By Delivering Segments Of Genetic Code(Nucleic Acids Segments) That Caused Mutations. 606

DOES EVOLUTION CONTINUED TO THE PRESENT DAY?. 608

Does Evolution Of Plants And Animals Continue To The Present Day?. 608

Are Human Beings Still Involved In The Evolutionary Process?  Or Has Evolution Stopped For The Human Race?. 609

49 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 612

PART SIX: HEALTH STRATEGIES AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE. 612

Chapter 16 A Simplified Examination Of Human Physiology, To Gain Insight For Health. 614

THE HUMAN BODY AS A MACHINE. 614

Introduction. 614

The Human Body As An Electrochemical Machine  615

Energy And The Human Body. 617

50 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 621

HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY WORK? A SIMPLIFIED SUMMARY. 622

Starting With Energy Production. 622

What Is Blood For?. 624

Websites On The Circulatory System, Blood, Lungs And Heart 625

Internet Videos On The Circulatory System, And Related Concepts. 628

51 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 630

Digestion And Related Concepts. 630

Websites On Digestion And Related Concepts  633

Internet Videos On Digestion, And Related Concepts. 634

52 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 636

Waste Products And The Kidneys. 636

Websites On The Kidneys. 636

Internet Videos On The Kidneys. 638

For A More Detailed Description On How The Body Works, And Human Physiology And Anatomy See The Following Websites. 639

Websites On More Advanced Concepts Of Physiology And Anatomy. 645

53 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 649

Chapter 17 What We Can Control To Improve Our Health, Happiness, And The Quality Of Life. 649

AN ASSESSMENT OF WHAT WE CAN AND CANNOT CONTROL IN RELATION TO THE QUALITY OF LIFE. 650

What We Cannot Control In Relation To The Quality Of Life. 650

What We Can Control And The Quality Of Life  652

HEALTH AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN RELATION TO OUR HABITS. 654

What Exactly Is A Habit?. 654

Examples Of Habits, And The Rewards They Provide. 655

Habits Usually Have Positive Or Adverse Consequences, Involving A Series Of Cause And Effect Sequences Or Chain Reactions That Affect Many Areas Of Life. 657

A Note On The Probabilities Associated With Good And Bad Habits. 660

DIFFERENT TYPES OF HABITS. 663

Dividing Habits Into Four Categories. 663

Health Habits. 664

Social-Habits. 666

Financial-Habits. 669

Mental Health Habits. 670

SELF-IMPROVEMENT  AND YOUR HABITS  672

Use Yourself As A Standard Of Comparison For Your Self-Improvement Efforts. 672

Self-Improvement Efforts Are More Likely To Be Fruitful If They Are Focused On Improving Habits  674

The Above Raises An Interesting Question: How Do You Break Bad Habits And Create Good Ones?  Answer: Practice, Practice, And More Practice  677

Practice Does Not Mean Perfect 679

Feedback And Correction Is Important For Any Type Of Practice. 680

When Feedback Indicates That Strategies Or Techniques Are Not Fruitful, Keep On Trying New Ones, Until You Obtain Successful Results  684

Make Your Efforts And Related Practice For Self-Improvement As Enjoyable As Possible  686

54 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 692

Chapter 18 Nutrition And Health. 692

NUTRITION FROM A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE  692

What Is A Healthy Well-Balanced Diet?  692

The Ideal Concept Of Food Variety In Relation To A Healthy Diet 694

Cultural Diversity In Relation To Food. 697

A List Of Food Groups Or Food Categories That Comprise A Healthy American Diet 697

Other Methods Of Devising A Healthy And Balanced Diet 705

55 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 709

UNDERSTANDING AND CREATING DIETS BASED ON INDIVIDUAL NUTRIENTS. 709

Shortcomings Of Planning Diets With Food Groups, And An Alternative, But More Complicated Method Involving The Assessment Of Individual Nutrients  709

A Basic Understanding Of The Chemicals Needed By The Body. 711

Water As A Nutrient, And Related Websites  712

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Protein and Related Websites. 716

57 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 726

Carbohydrates. 726

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Fats And Related Websites. 730

59 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 735

Websites on Calcium.. 735

Websites on Phosphorus. 738

Websites On Vitamin A. 741

Websites On Vitamin C. 744

Websites on Vitamin D. 746

Websites On Vitamin E. 748

Websites On Vitamin K. 751

Websites On Vitamin B1 (Thiamin). 753

Websites On Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). 755

Websites On Niacin (Or Niacinamide). 757

Websites On Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). 759

Websites On Folic Acid. 760

Websites On Vitamin B12. 762

Websites On Pantothenic Acid. 764

Websites On Other Nutrients. 766

60 Click on this hyperlink for a sound file of the following: 778

Chapter 19 Weight Control 778

THEORIES AND EXCUSES FOR THE PROBLEM OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. 778

Introduction To The Problem.. 778

Why The Theory Of A Sedentary Lifestyle, (Lack Of Exercise) And Overweight Fails. 779

Why The Theory Of Aging And Overweight Fails  783

Why The Theory Of Genetics And Overweight Fails  787

Why Fat Cell Theories Of Overweight Fail 789

Fat Cells, Or Fat, Are Distributed Unattractively On Some People, Such As On The Belly, But This Does Not Make Them Fat Without Over Eating  790

What Are The Real Causes Of Overweight In The Developed Countries?. 792

Over Eating. 793

The Type Of Food Consumed. 795

JUNK FOODS, FATTENING FOODS AND LOW-CALORIE FOODS. 797

Why Are Junk Foods A Major Health Problem   797

Looking At Foods In Terms Of Calories Per Volume Can Provide Some Useful Insight For The Attainment And Maintenance Of Proper Weight 799

EXAMINING THE PROBLEM OF OVERWEIGHT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HABITS. 803

Poor Exercise Habits Or Sedentary Habits  804

The Solution To The Problem Of Overweight And Obesity. 805

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Chapter 20 Health, Exercise And Related Concepts. 807

THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF THREE CATEGORIES OF EXERCISE, EACH PROVIDING ITS OWN UNIQUE HEALTH BENEFITS. 808

Introductory Ideas: Everyone Seems To Agree That Appropriate Exercise Is Healthy. 808

Stretching, Resistance And Cardiovascular Exercises. 809

STRETCHING EXERCISES. 810

Flexibility and Range Of Motion Are The Benefits Of Stretching Exercises. 810

Some People Have Very Limited Flexibility, And They Can Profit From An Extensive Stretching Exercise Program, Carried Out Throughout Life. 813

Stretching Exercises Do Not Provide The Benefits Of Resistance And Cardiovascular Exercise  814

Stretching Exercises Can Be Divided Into Two Categories, Static And Dynamic. 815

Stretching Exercises, And The Feel Of The Stretch  817

Stretching Exercises And Temperature  818

What Should You Stretch?. 819

Internet Videos On Stretching Exercises  820

Websites On Stretching Exercises. 822

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RESISTANCE EXERCISES. 826

Introduction And Definitions. 826

Resistance Exercises Can Be Classified From A Continuums From Dynamic To Static. 828

A Continuum Of Speed In Relation To Resistance Exercises. 830

A Continuum Of The Number Of Repetitions In Relation To Resistance Exercises. 831

Understanding The Continuum Concepts Presented Above Can Be Useful When Planning An Exercise Program.. 832

Internet Videos On Resistance Exercises  835

Websites On Resistance Exercises. 838

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CARDIOVASCULAR EXERCISE (AEROBIC EXERCISE). 842

Benefits Of Cardiovascular Exercise (Also Called Aerobics). 842

What Is Cardiovascular Exercise?. 843

Shoes For Aerobic Activities (Cardiovascular Exercises). 845

Clothing For Aerobic Activities (Cardiovascular Exercises). 847

Music Can Make Aerobics (Cardiovascular Exercise) More Pleasant For Most People. 850

How Often Should Cardiovascular Exercise Be Carried Out?. 853

The Following Ideas Are Important For All Types Of Aerobics, Including Jogging, But They Are Equally Important For Resistance Exercises, Including Weightlifting. 854

Losing Physical Abilities: This Applies To All Types Of Aerobics, Such As Jogging, As Well As Resistance Exercises, Such As Weight Lifting  858

Videos On Aerobics (Cardiovascular Exercise)  863

Websites On Aerobics (Cardiovascular Exercise)  867

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RISK REDUCTION AND HEALTHY EXERCISE PROGRAMS. 870

Reducing Chances Of Injury From Aerobics With Proper Shoes And A Well-Balanced Exercise Program.. 870

Low Impact Aerobics. 872

The Difference Between A Health-Orientated And An Athletic-Performance Exercise Program   873

Is There An Ideal Exercise Program That Is Low Risk, And Healthy For Everyone?  Maybe Aerobic Dancing. 878

Internet videos For Aerobic Dance Exercises  882

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SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEMS AND EXCUSES THAT INTERFERE WITH REGULAR EXERCISE  884

Three Of The Most Common Problems Or Excuses  884

How To Conquer The Problem of Time: I Do Not Have Time To Exercise. 884

Improve Your Time Management Skills and Your Daily Schedule, So You Will Have More Time To Exercise. 888

You Can Also Save Time By Avoiding Health Clubs And Gyms. 890

The Problem Of Pain From Exercise, And The Solutions. 894

A Solution To The Problem: I Do Not Like To Exercise. 898

Summing Up: Designing An Optimal Exercise Program.. 900

Miscellaneous Websites On Exercise And Related Concepts. 902

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Chapter 21 A Practical Perspective On The Sensations Of Fatigue And Energy, And Sleep. 904

CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF FATIGUE  904

What Is Fatigue?. 904

You Can Avoid Errors, Accidents, And Poor Decisions By Not Performing Certain Activities While You Are Experiencing Fatigue. 906

TWO CATEGORIES OF FATIGUE. 908

Fatigue Can Be Divided Into Two Broad Categories  908

Very Often Physiological Fatigue And Inhibitory Fatigue Are Activated Simultaneously. 911

Is Fighting Or Resisting Fatigue Healthy Or Hazardous?. 912

There Are A Number Of Healthy Ways Of Reducing The Various Types Of Physiological Fatigue  915

ACTIVITY RELATED FATIGUE. 918

Each Activity Produces Its Own Unique Type Of Fatigue. 919

Activity Related Fatigue Associated With Sitting Related Work And Its Antidotes. 923

Exercise Related Fatigue, And Its Antidotes  924

Activity Related Fatigue That Results From Lying Down And Resting Or Sleeping, Often Associated With Grogginess, And The Antidotes. 927

Activity Related Fatigue Associated With Eating, (Especially Overeating) And Related Antidotes  930

Websites On Fatigue, And Related Concepts  932

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SLEEP AND RELATED CONCEPTS. 934

What Is Sleep For?. 934

Sleep Produces Some Adverse Physiological Consequences, That Are Reversed During Wakefulness, And Wakefulness Produces Some Adverse Physiological Consequences That Are Reversed During Sleep. 936

There Are Adverse Consequences Of Excessive Sleep Or Bed Rest, Which Can Be Reversed With Exercise. 937

Do You Sleep Too Much?. 938

The Amount Of Sleep You Need Partly Relates To Your Sleep Efficiency. 939

Insomnia. 942

Websites On Insomnia, And Related Concepts  948

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The Opposite Of Insomnia: Excessive Sleep  951

Websites On Excessive Sleepiness And Fatigue  961

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HOW TO DEAL WITH THE NORMAL LEVELS OF FATIGUE AND BECOME MORE ENERGETIC  962

Strategies To Feel More Energetic And Less Fatigued. 962

Get Adequate Sleep Each Day. 963

Avoid Excess Sleep And Rest 964

Maintain A Regular 24-Hour Cycle. 964

Eat a healthy well-balanced diet 965

Eat Relatively Small Meals. 966

Excessive Body Weight Can Result In Additional Fatigue. 967

Excessively Low Body Weight Can Result In Additional Fatigue. 967

Develop Your Body With An Exercise Program   968

Make Your Environment As Stimulating And Pleasant As Possible. 969

Try To Make Your Work More Interesting Exciting And Pleasant 970

Seek Medical Treatment For Any Type Of Problematic Fatigue. 971

Avoid Stimulants. 972

Websites On Sleep And Related Concepts  973

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Chapter 22 Emotional Stress And  Relaxation Techniques. 975

CONCEPTS AND BELIEFS ABOUT STRESS  975

A Note: What Is Emotional Stress?. 975

Do We Really Live In A More Emotionally Stressful Society?. 977

Comparing Modern Life To An Ideal Less Stressful Society. 979

Modern Society Is Perhaps Excessively Concerned About Stress. 980

IS EMOTIONAL  STRESS ALWAYS BAD, OR IS IT SOMETIMES STIMULATING AND HEALTHY?  981

Stress Can Sometimes Provide The Energy And Motivation To Make Improvements In Our Lives  982

Under What Conditions Is Stress Destructive, And Under What Conditions Is It Healthy And Productive?. 984

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES AND RELATED CONCEPTS. 985

There Are A Large Number Of Relaxation Techniques. 985

A Note On A Different Perspective Of Emotional Stress. 988

RELAXATION TECHNIQUE ONE: FACING THE PROBLEMS OF LIFE, AND TRYING TO ALLEVIATE THEM.. 990

Try To Solve, Alleviate, Or Circumvent Your Problems. 991

Three Common Causes Of Emotional Stress, And Some Possible Solutions. 992

RELAXATION TECHNIQUE TWO DEVELOP A HEALTHY ATTITUDE OR PHILOSOPHY  996

Learn To Deal With Imperfections And Failures In Yourself, In Others, And In The World In General 996

Design Your Life, And Activities To Make You Healthy And Happy. 998

RELAXATION TECHNIQUE THREE: AVOID CAUSING PROBLEMS WITH YOUR NERVOUS ENERGY, AND FOCUS IT ON SOLVING PROBLEMS  999

People Under Emotional Stress, Sometimes Inadvertently Cause Problems For Others  1000

RELAXATION TECHNIQUE FOUR REARRANGING OR MODIFYING YOUR LIFE CIRCUMSTANCES TO REDUCE STRESS, AND INCREASE HEALTH AND HAPPINESS. 1001

Design A Healthy And Happy Life, And Live It 1002

Plans And Actions. 1003

RELAXATION TECHNIQUE FIVE: LISTENING TO RELAXING MUSIC OR OTHER SOUNDS  1005

Basic Concepts Music And Sounds For Relaxation  1005

Getting Started With The Technique. 1006

Relaxing Music Or Sounds While You Are Involved With Other Activities. 1007

Hyperlinks To Videos On The Internet With Relaxation Music. 1009

Websites On Relaxing Sounds. 1012

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RELAXATION TECHNIQUE SIX MEDITATION   1013

A Basic Description Of Meditation For Relaxation  1013

Is Meditation A Good Relaxation Technique For Everyone?. 1014

The Practical Use Of Meditation As A Relaxation Technique. 1015

Videos on the Internet On Meditation. 1016

Websites On Meditation And Related Concepts  1017

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RELAXATION TECHNIQUE SEVEN: BREATHING EXERCISES. 1019

What Are Breathing Exercises?. 1019

Breathing Exercises With Other Relaxation Techniques. 1020

Learning And Experimenting With Breathing Exercises. 1020

Hyperlinks To Internet Videos On Breathing Exercises For Relaxation. 1021

Websites On Breathing Exercises And Related Concepts. 1022

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RELAXATION TECHNIQUE EIGHT: PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION. 1023

A Description Of The Technique. 1024

The Objective Of Progressive Relaxation  1025

Combining Progressive Relaxation Techniques With Other Methods. 1025

Mastering Progressive Relaxation. 1026

Videos On The Internet For Progressive Relaxation Techniques. 1027

Websites On Progressive Relaxation Techniques  1029

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RELAXATION TECHNIQUE NINE: HYPNOSIS  1031

Types Of Hypnosis And A Description Of The Basic Technique. 1031

How Are People Hypnotized. 1033

Self-Hypnosis. 1034

Hypnosis With Sound Recordings Or Videos  1035

How To Use Hypnosis Successfully. 1036

Hyperlinks To Internet Videos On Hypnosis  1039

Websites On Hypnosis And Relaxation  1042

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RELAXATION TECHNIQUE TEN: BIOFEEDBACK FOR RELAXATION. 1043

A Basic Description And Basic Concepts Of Biofeedback. 1043

Biofeedback Is Usually Done With Some Type Of Electronic Monitoring Device. 1045

You Do Not Necessarily Need Equipment To Use Biofeedback As A Relaxation Technique  1047

A Modified Version Of Biofeedback Can Be, Performed While Doing Other Activities  1049

Internet Videos On Biofeedback. 1051

Websites On Biofeedback. 1052